Wider Roads For Pilgrims Mean More Landslides In Himalayas

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Wider Roads For Pilgrims Mean More Landslides In H
By - Seema Sharma/thethirdpole.net

(As a massive road-widening project continues to roll through the Indian state of Uttarakhand, residents battle landslides, and the future of the environment is murky)

Recurring landslides on the 889 kilometres of roads being widened under the Char Dham Project in Uttarakhand have made life miserable for residents this monsoon. The CDP, with an estimated cost of INR 120 billion (USD 1.64 billion), is one of the largest road-widening projects in the Himalayan region of India. It was inaugurated by the Indian prime minister in December 2016, and work is proceeding at 36 out of 53 sites.

Road Blockages And Landslides

With the aim of widening the roads to four of Hinduism’s holiest shrines in the Himalayas – Kedarnath, Badrinath, Gangotri and Yamunotri – the CDP is a prestige project of the Bharatiya Janata Party that rules at the centre as well as the state.

But roads in the world’s tallest and youngest mountain range can be widened only by scooping out trees, soil and rocks from the hillsides – which makes the entire slope unstable. The more that is scooped out, the more unstable it is. The situation is worsened if the bare hillsides are left untreated – without planting afresh, without placing meshes to hold the soil in place, without blocking the natural water channels along the slope. It is further worsened if the debris is just dumped down the gorge and end up in the rivers below.

As things stand now, road blockages due to landslides along the CDP route have made vehicular movement difficult; several people have been killed as boulders and other debris fell from slopes left untreated. Three members of a family died in Rishikesh on July 31 when debris from an embankment fell on a house. This was on the 29 kilometre Rishikesh-Tehri road which was widened under this project.

Narendra Pokhriyal, a resident of Pipalkoti, said, “The contractors are cutting hills, widening the road and moving further without treatment of the slopes at most of the places. This situation can be witnessed on the entire route of the Rishikesh-Badrinath highway.”

(When debris is dumped into a river from both banks, as seen in this instance along the Char Dham Project route, the river is effectively narrowed, and the risk of flooding is increased)

Supreme Court Intervenes

Some of the affected residents went to India’s Supreme Court last year, and the court appointed a review committee to be chaired by noted environmentalist Ravi Chopra. In a recent report, the committee pointed out that out of 174 freshly-cut hill slopes, 102 were found to be landslide prone on one route alone. In just four months of 2020 there have been 11 slope failures – almost one a week. Uma Joshi, one of the petitioners to Supreme Court, was among eight people killed when boulders and rubble from a landslide toppled their vehicles into a gorge at Chandidhar on the Kedarnath route last October.

Hemant Dhyani, member of the court-appointed committee, told The Third Pole, “The greater the road width, the greater is the required slope cutting and the slope destabilisation. Following that you have soil loss, green cover loss, tree felling, loss of topsoil and loss of water source.”

(The more vertical the cut on the hillside, the more unstable the slope, as in this instance along the Char Dham Project route)

However, 13 out of 18 committee members were in favour of a 10-metre-wide road, which requires a mountain to be cut to a width of 24 metres. Chairperson Ravi Chopra and four other members favoured a road seven metres wide, of which 5.5 metres would be tarred.

J.C. Kuniyal, a scientist with the government-run GB Pant Institute of Himalayan Environment and Development and another committee member, voted in favour of the wider road. He told The Third Pole, “It is the expertise and mandate of national highway engineers to fix road width under CDP. We, as HPC [high-powered committee] members must give our recommendations based on futuristic approach to accommodate expansion of tourism and transportation on the Char Dham route.”

Since the two groups had made such widely different recommendations, on August 31, during the most recent hearing of the case in the Supreme Court, the judges said they wanted to hear all stakeholders. Sanjay Parikh, lawyer for the petitioners, wanted an early hearing, pointing out the recurrence of landslides due to hill-cutting during the ongoing monsoon. The government said it wanted to make “some submissions”. The judges fixed September 8 as the next date of hearing. On that day, Ravi Chopra is among those the judges want to hear from.

“The remaining 160 km road stretch falls under extremely ecologically sensitive areas like Bhagirathi Eco Zone and upper reaches, so we have suggested to the government to seek a middle path to end the stalemate,” said an official of the central ministry of road transport and highways.

Chandi Prasad Bhatt, the doyen of Indian ecologists, said, “A little widening is required if there is a sharp turn or a rock jutting out on the road. This approach would have been economical and saved 90% of the hill and slope cutting which is the most important factor.”

But many of the roads along the four routes have already been widened, with a metre-wide shoulder on each side. Bhatt said, “Since about 729 km road has been widened to 12 metre width, to control some damage, barring the 5.5 metre wide stretches, the remaining space should be used to build walking path for pilgrims, with plantations on roadsides and drainage provisions.”

Naveen Juyal, a geologist, explained the CDP will leave its impact on all the valleys through which the roads to the four Hindu pilgrimage centres pass. “The 889 km project was misleadingly broken into 53 smaller projects of less than 100 km each by the central government, thereby evading the necessity of an environment impact assessment which is required for any project over 100 km,” he pointed out. “The truth is that all the four valleys can be encompassed within a circle of 50 km radius. Thus the impacts of CDP are cumulative and not limited to the specific project areas.”

The committee’s report also pointed out that debris dumped down the gorges badly impact the habitat of fish species like the Common Snow Trout and Brown Trout, repress bio-films (food sources of invertebrates which are the cleaning agents of rivers) and destroy the habitat of algae, green bacteria and other aquatic flora and fauna.

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